|Source information needed!
The item level is a rather important property of every item. It has two main functions — reflect the item's usefulness and at the same time determine the minimum level a character must have in order to use it (see Minimum level requirements and Item Level). Unfortunately, the true item level is hidden in the game. Only UI mods can read it via the function GetItemInfo.
As Hyzenthlei (Tauren Shaman 60 on Zul'Jin) first found out, and was later confirmed by a presentation at Blizzcon, Blizzard uses a formula to calculate item level from the item's stats. The following is an attempt to reverse-engineer this formula. This text is based on a forum post by Hyzenthlei (the original author) in the Blizzard forums, but that post has since disappeared.
Terms and definitionsSzerkesztés
- StatValue — the amount of a given stat on an item
- StatMod — the weighting given to the stats
- ItemValue — the total modified value of the stats on an item
- SlotMod — weighting based on equipment slot
- ItemSlotValue — ItemValue modified for the item slot
- ilvl — the effective level of an item (hidden in game)
Calculating Item LevelSzerkesztés
The item level calculation was reverse-engineered upon a number of observations on the items in game:
- Different statistics appear to be worth different amounts: One randomly enchanted item could have 40 attack power, 20 strength, or 30 stamina.
- Different gear slots appear to be given different stat allocations: A helm or chestpiece has many more stats than gloves or a belt.
- The more stats on an item, the more possible stats you may have. An item might have 50 Strength, or 35 Strength and 35 Spirit, or 28 each of 3 stats...
From these observations we are able to calculate the item level: The calculation process.
The item is assigned its stats. Each stat has a different value denoted by its StatMod, listed in the table below; this is multiplied by the Stat Value to give a true indication of the worth of that statistic. This is then raised to the 1.7095 power (Log2/Log1.5) as shown below:
This is repeated for every stat on the item and the totals are summed together, then raised to the 1/1.7095 power, to give the ItemValue:
- ItemValue = [(StatValue*StatMod)1.7095 + (StatValue*StatMod)1.7095 + ...]1/1.7095
This sum is divided by the SlotMod to give the value of stats allowed for that particular piece (greatest for Chest/Head/Legs and lower for Rings,Wrists etc)
- ItemSlotValue = ItemValue / SlotMod
Finally, the quality of the item must be taken into account. For example, a green item at lv70 may have the same stats as a blue item at lv65, but the green item has much higher iLevel:
The third and final modification takes into account item quality. The end result is a calculated value for item level.
- Uncommon: ilvl = ItemSlotValue * 2.0 + 8.00
- Rare: ilvl = ItemSlotValue * 1.8 + 0.75
- Epic: ilvl = ItemSlotValue * 1.2 + 26
This calculated item level usually matches Blizzards item level quite well.
The heart of the formula is to take each modified stat value to the 1.7095th power, sum up these terms and draw the 1.7095th root from the sum. This process makes single, high values of one stat more expensive than multiple, lower stats. Still it is a fairly simple mathematical model, but not so simple that it is just all the stats added together. Previously it was thought that the power was 1.5 or 1.6; calculations since have shown 1.7095 to be a more accurate model.
The StatMod values are a "cost" associated with the stat, so an item of the same level can have more of a stat with a low StatMod, than with a high one. The same item could for example either have 5 mana regen/5 or 12 Spirit.
|Armor Penetration||0.14 (1/7)|
|Attack Power vs (demons, beasts, undead)||0.33|
|Ranged Attack Power||0.40|
|Spell Healing||0.45 (5/11)|
|Spell Damage vs (demons, beasts, undead)||0.55|
|Stamina (Burning Crusade items only)||0.67 (2/3)|
|Spell Damage (One school)||0.70|
|Spell Damage (All Spells)||0.86 (6/7)|
|Magic Resist (One school)||1.00|
|Primary Stat (STR, AGI, INT, SPI)||1.00|
|Stamina (non-Burning Crusade Items only)||1.00|
|Combat Rating (Any)||1.00|
|Regen per 5 sec (Health or Mana)||2.5|
|Magic Resist (All schools)||2.5|
|+1 Stealth Level||7.00|
- +Holy has value of 0.92 on some items (according to Hyzenthlei), while for example Green Lens will have the same +34-36 to any school including Holy
- Magic Resist (All schools) includes items that specifically state "All Resistances", along with items that list each individual school.
- An item that adds damage to two schools of magic may be charged anything between one school and all spells. This varies among a few items that do this which seemingly depends on useability of two schools for any classes.
These stat mods were obtained by evaluating several thousands of items. Some values (like resists or +spell damage) are pretty reliable since they occur on many items and in large values. Knowing the base that Blizzard uses, most others were rounded to a number that would appear to make sense.
Some of these weightings seem to be different on different item types. A probably non-conclusive list is:
|Magic Resist (One school)||0.72|
|Magic Resist (All schools)||1.80|
|Health per 5 sec||3.50|
|Health per 5 sec||3.50|
Some item types have better or more stats than items that go in different slots. Helms for example will always give better benefits than bracers of the same item level. A high SlotMod in this table means that the item will have better stats than an item for a slot with a lower number and the same ilvl.
|Head, Chest, Legs, 2H Weapon||1.00|
|Shoulder, Hands, Waist, Feet||0.75 (3/4)|
|Wrist, Neck, Back, Finger, Off-hand/Shield||0.5625 (9/16)|
|1H weapon||0.4219 (27/64)|
Weapon DPS is inherent to the iLevel of the item: thus as more stats are assigned, the higher the DPS will be.
Weapon DPS follows the following formulae for Burning Crusade items:
|One Handed Weapon||iLevel<97: = iLevel*0.3448 + 16.7552||iLevel<97: = iLevel*0.4350 + 15.8250||iLevel<138: = iLevel*0.45 + 36.1|
|iLevel>97: = iLevel*0.6333 - 10.7||iLevel>97: = iLevel*0.7488 - 14.4905||iLevel>138: = iLevel*0.6 + 15.5|
|2 Handed Weapon||1 Handed * 1.3|
|Ranged (Gun/Bow/xBow)||iLevel*0.5 + 1.4||iLevel*0.58 - 0.3||iLevel*0.4047 + 32.84|
|Thrown||iLevel*0.5542-8.8045||iLevel*0.6191-6.9569||iLevel*0.4047 + 32.84|
|Wand||1-Handed Melee * 1.77||1-Handed Melee * 1.80||1-Handed Melee * 1.83|
Many caster weapons sacrifice a portion of their Melee DPS to obtain spelldamage stats: for example http://www.wowwiki.com/Continuum_Blade In this way, caster DPS and healer weapons gain spelldamage at an equivalent rate to melee weapons gaining melee DPS. This also applied for Feral Druid weapons; they gain Feral Attack Power instead of melee DPS on many weapons.
The amount of Damage/Healing/FAP gained is proportional to the amount of DPS sacrificed in the following way:
- Spell Damage = Sacrificed DPS * 4
- Healing = Sacrificed DPS * 7.5
- Feral Attack Power = Sacrificed DPS * 18.37 - 12.4843
One Handed caster weapons universally have damage ranges between 41.0-42.0 DPS. This damage range is the basis for the sacrifice of DPS for both one and two handed weapons.
The amount of DPS Sacrificed simply Melee 1 Hand DPS - 41.5 In this way, a 2-handed caster staff and a one-handed dagger would both have the same spelldamage/healing. The actual melee DPS of the caster weapon would then be:
|One Handed Caster||41-42|
|2 Handed Weapon Caster/Feral||0.3*Melee One Hander DPS + 41.5|
To see how this works: A Superior iLevel 115 caster weapon such as the Continuum blade:
Base DPS of 1-handed blue weapon iLevel 115 = 115*0.7488 - 14.4905 = 71.6215 DPS is then set to 41.5, sacrificed DPS is therefore 30.12 30.12*4= 120.5 = 121 Spelldamage.
Or for a Feral DPS Weapon, for example the Earthwarden:
Base DPS of 2-handed epic weapon iLevel 100 = (100*0.45 + 36.1)*1.3 = 81.1*1.3 = 105.45 (81.1-41.5) DPS is sacrificed, bringing the staff's DPS to 65.83. Sacrificed DPS is therefore 39.5 39.5* 18.37 - 12.4843 = 713 Feral Attack Power
Armor value is inherent to the item and dependent upon its iLevel. Additional armor can be purchased with normal stat points: gear with additional armor will show the armor value in Green text. However, for most pieces the armor value is given without the use of any normal Item value.
The maximum armor for a particular iLevel piece is calculated using the formula below, and then multipied by the Armor SlotMod to calculate the armor for that particular gear slot. Blue/Superior armors have 1.1 times the armor value of a Green Item, and Epic items have 1.25 times the armor of a Blue item (1.375 times a green). Shields have a separate formula of their own and have different multipliers between gear qualities as shown below.
|Cloth||iLevel*1.19 + 5.1||Green * 1.1||Blue * 1.25 (Green * 1.375)|
|Leather||iLevel*2.22 + 10||Green * 1.1||Blue * 1.25|
|iLevel*4.9 + 29||Green * 1.1||Blue * 1.25|
|Plate||iLevel*9 + 23||Green * 1.1||Blue * 1.25|
|Shield||iLevel*85/3 + 133||Green * 1.22||Blue * 1.28|
Each particular slot of armor receives a slightly different percentage of the maximum armor calculated above, according to this table:
Capes are always cloth armor.
Using these two formulas: an iLevel 115 Blue quality Mail Bracer would have armor of:
(115 * 4.9 + 29)Green * 1.1Blue * 7/16Wrist = 285.14
Compared to the blue bracers, all have an armor of 285: http://www.wowhead.com/?items=4.3&filter=qu=3;sl=9;minle=115
Socket research is still underway- it is not quite known how adding sockets affects an item's iLevel.
Currently there does not appear to be one set Statmod for sockets or any set way that they are added to items. Initial tests suggested that the Statmod may be around 10-11 but many items do not follow this basic pattern.
One theory proposed is that Sockets are created by removing stats from the item after it has been created, in order to make the item the correct iLevel for the 'expected' gems.
For example: Chestpiece of Tanking: Stats 50 Stamina, 40 Defense, 20 Strength. iLevel is calculated at 110 (blue item) Then Stats are removed and sockets added in their place to take the place of those stats for the 'expected gems'. 12 Stamina is removed and replaced with a Blue Socket. - players are expected to socket this with Solid Star of Elune. 6 Stamina and 4 Defense is removed and replaced with a Yellow socket. - players are expected to socket this with Enduring Talasite. 6 Stamina and 4 Strength is removed and replaced with a Red socket. - players are expected to socket this with Sovereign Nightseye. The item then becomes: 26 Stam 34 Defense 16 Srength, R B Y Sockets.
The "expected gems" never add any new stats to the item, and always match socket colors.
Another theory is that the fundamental formula for calculating iLevel changes once sockets are added, but no progress has been made on this new formula.
Socket Bonuses are proportional in value to the amount of sockets. The socket bonus does not have any bearing on the ItemValue and is there to give players 'something for nothing' for choosing more diverse gems. Socket Bonus for 1 socket has ItemValue of 2. (ie 3 Stamina, 2 Strength) Socket Bonus for 2 sockets has Itemvalue of 3. (ie 3 Spellcrit, 1.2 Mp5) Socket Bonus for 3 sockets has ItemValue of 4. (Ie, 4 Defense, 6 Stamina, 4.65 spelldamage)
Procs and uses effectsSzerkesztés
The stat mods table contains the most frequently appearing stats. There are other stats which are sometimes unique or difficult to describe. All procs fall in this category, as do all Use:<do something> abilities. While these don't fit with an immediately obvious value, this system can be used to see what the blizzard item designers think they are worth and translate them into a stat-equivalent format.
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Armor values on items follow a simple linear scaling pattern within certain limits. For example, mail armor scales linearly between certain ilvls, at which points the slope of the linear increase changes. One of these points is ilvl 45, above this point it scales more rapidly. Remember that an ilvl 45 item can be worn at lvl 40, and shamans and hunters get mail at 40. So they wanted mail to scale up fast for those classes, but without raising the amour values of pre 40 warriors too high (don't worry warriors, plate armor scales up even faster). Examples of armor scaling are shown below.
- Green Plate Chest AC = (ilvl-44) * 8.9 + 428
- Green Mail Chest AC = (ilvl-46) * 4.9 + 254
- Green Leather Chest AC = (ilvl-40) * 2.2 + 110
- Green Cloth Chest AC = (ilvl-40) * 1.2 + 53
- Green Shield AC = (ilvl-44) * 28.3 + 1380
This only applies between a certain level boundary, in this case between X and 65, where X is found using the general formula of "(ilvl - X) * Y + Z", although they will most likely also apply post-level 65, as there are no big armor changes past that level.
The armor value of rare or epic pieces is also very easy to obtain using a simple multiplier. If you really want to go into detail, you will notice that there are plate chests with ilvls below 44. Due to their ilvl they should be equippable below lvl 40 (if any class could) and follow a different scaling equation (which is why jouster plate stuff has such pitiful armor values compared to many other starting plate item, their ilvls are all low).
For Items of the same armor type (cloth, leather, etc) and the same ilvl
- Rare Armor Value = Green Armor Value * 1.1
- Epic Armor Value = Green Armor Value * 1.2
The exception to this is shields, which use a slightly different scaling
- Rare Shield Armor Value = Green Shield Armor Value * 1.122
- Epic Shield Armor Value = Rare Shield Armor Value * 1.280 ( = Green * 1.436)
Of course there are items with much higher armor than others around that lvl. Those items are using the extra armor as an actual stat. Only this extra armor, above and beyond the predicted armor is considered in item weighting. So while the base armor level of an item is free, going higher will cost you other stats.
The item slot plays a role in armor as well:
|Back (always Cloth)||0.480|
*Notes - Tier 4 plate armor seems to scale differently - the numbers crunched to 1325.28 rather than the 1510 that is actually on the piece. Perhaps a change is made to the scaling past iLvl 100-120?
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Just like AC, you can also calculate weapon DPS. Before you continue however, make sure you read the parts about AC and DPS sacrificing, from here it is assumed you know what is written there.
The idea is far more simple than the AC, as there are no equivalent to armor types in DPS. This is the calculation for green onehanders:
- Green One Hander DPS = ( ilvl - 45 ) * 0.6 + 26.6
But instead of having multiple formulas, you just have to multiply the DPS of a green onehander of the same level with a certain number, linked to what kind of new weapon you have, to give the DPS of that weapon:
|Ranged (bow, gun etc.)||1.275|
Besides these multipliers, raid items (some other items maybe as well) can sacrifice DPS for stats, in that case you simply have to subtract that from the expected DPS.
- This seems to fit in the item range of level 45-65, before the green items have a different formula and after might scale differently. Also, these multipliers could be off, or each case could be a formula on their own, but it fits so well it seems unlikely.
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To find an expected armorvalue for a given item you will first need to know the scaling of that item type.
Do a search on thottbot for green items of that type, with lvl ranges of 44-46. Find the base armor they have. Then do the same for items of that slot at ilvl 61-63.
ArmorScaling = (higharmor - lowamor)/(highilvl - lowilvl)
this is the armor increase per ilvl for a green of that armor type. Once you have that, do
ArmorValue = (Desiredilvl - highilvl)*ArmorScaling + higharmor
This will give the value of a green at that ilvl.
Then multiply it by 1.1 for a rare, or 1.2 for an epic.
Let's try this on a stormrage helm, 183 armor, ilvl 76. Green leather helms: ilvl 45, armor 99 ilvl 64, armor 132
ArmorScaling = (132 - 99)/(64-45) = 1.74 armor/ilvl
(76 - 64) * 1.74 + 132 = 152.8 152.8 * 1.2 = 183.4 -> 183 armor
You can use this to find the ArmorScaling factor and expected armor for any item.
Item value examplesSzerkesztés
Circle of Applied Force Binds when picked up Unique Epic Finger Miscellaneous +12 Strength +22 Agility +9 Stamina Requires Level 60 Item Level 75
If we calculate the Item Value from the stats, we find that it's effective item level is 74.4.
Cloak of the Shrouded Mists Binds when picked up Epic Back 57 Armor +22 Agility +12 Stamina +6 Fire Resistance +6 Nature Resistance Requires Level 60 Item Level 74
Calculated item value is 74.3.
Shroud of Pure Thought Binds when picked up Back 65 Armor +10 Stamina +11 Intellect Requires Level 60 Equip: Increases healing done by up to 33 and damage done by up to 11 for all magical spells and effects. Equip: Restores 6 mana every 5 sec. Item Level 75
Here the calculated value of 76.7 slightly exceeds the blizzard item level.
Minimum level requirements and Item LevelSzerkesztés
The iLevel (Item Level) of an item often determines the level required to use that item. There are two separate formulas for this attribute. The first can be used on items acquired before The Burning Crusade (TBC), the second on those after this expansion came out.
- minLevel = iLevel - 5
- Green quality: minLevel = (iLevel - 90) / 3 + 60
- Blue quality: minLevel = (iLevel - 85) / 3 + 60
- Epic : minLevel = 70
WoTLK (Beta 9th Sept 2008 data (build 8905))Szerkesztés
These are estimates based on the initial items datamined from the expansion. Though possible, these values are unlikely to change given their consistency with the rest of the formulas here. Blues seem to have different "levels" of blue with minLevel 80 being either iLevel 174 or 187. Heroic mode Blue drops are iLvl 200.
- Green quality: minLevel = (iLevel - 142) / 4 + 70
- Blue quality: minLevel = (iLevel - 134) / 4 + 70
- Epic : minLevel = 80
These are the general formulas. There are items, however, that do not follow these rules. Here is a (by no means complete) list of often occurring exceptions:
- Quest items often have an iLevel of 1, or the level of the quest they belong to. In most cases, minLevel = iLevel in these cases.
- Some quests give items whose minLevel is higher than the level needed to complete the quest. Because items obtained from quests in most cases don't have a minLevel, you can therefore have items with a higher iLevel than you can normally get.
- Some items don't follow the formulas without apparent reason, especially in TBC. For example, has an iLevel of 115, but instead of the expected minLevel 70, it has a minLevel of 68.
- The most exceptions are the items of epic quality, before TBC they tend to follow the rules for minLevel throughout level 1-59, but at level 60 and beyond the minLevel is capped. This is because of raiding instances. Items in these instances need to become more powerful in harder instances so people can become stronger even though they can't advance in level any more. Therefore, the iLevel of these items become higher, while players stay at level 60, so to be able to use these items, the minLevel is capped at level 60 for items before TBC, and at 70 for items in TBC.
Epic Item Level ChartSzerkesztés
Azeroth (The Old World - Pre-Burning Crusade) (minLevel = 60, iLevel >= 60)Szerkesztés
Item levels and the drop locations. (This is not a complete list, merely an indication.)
- 61-68 : Zul'Gurub item set
- 61-70 : Molten Core (MC)
- 65 : PvP faction rewards, Zul'Gurub (ZG)
- 65-70 : Ruins of Ahn'Qiraj item set
- 66 : Jin'do (ZG), Tier 1 item set
- 66-71 : Kruul, Azuregos (Outdoor)
- 66-72 : Ruins of Ahn'Qiraj
- 68 : Hakkar (ZG)
- 70-83 : Blackwing Lair (BWL)
- 71 : Marshal/General PvP honor rewards
- 71-72 : Green Dragons (Outdoor)
- 71-76 : Onyxia (Onyxia's Lair)
- 71-88 : Temple of Ahn'Qiraj
- 74 : Field Marshal/Warlord PvP honor rewards
- 76 : Tier 2 item set
- 73-78 : Ragnaros (MC)
- 78 : Grand Marshal/High Warlord PvP honor rewards
- 78-88 : Temple of Ahn'Qiraj item set
- 81-92 : Naxxramas
- 86-92 : Tier 3 item set
The Burning Crusade (minLevel = 70)Szerkesztés
The Wrath of the Lich King (minLevel = 80)Szerkesztés
|ilvl||PvE (party)||PvE (10-man raid)||PvE (25-man raid)||PvP||crafted|
|200|| Exalted reputation gear|
Heroic end-boss gear
Emblem of Heroism gear
| Naxxramas 10 gear|
Obsidian Sanctum 10 gear
Tier 7.10 sets
|S5 Hateful gear||BoE Craftables|
|213|| Naxxramas 10 end boss (Kel'thuzad)|
Obsidian Sanctum 10 bonus loot 2
Eye of Eternity 10 gear
Ulduar 10 gear
Tier 8.10 sets
| Emblem of Valor gear |
Naxxramas 25 gear
Obsidian Sanctum 25 gear
Tier 7.25 sets
|S5 Deadly gear|
|226|| Naxxramas 25 end boss (Kel'thuzad)|
Obsidian Sanctum 25 bonus loot 2
Eye of Eternity 25 gear
Emblem of Conquest gear
Ulduar 25 gear
Tier 8.25 sets
Suitability of this formula for calculating DKPSzerkesztés
The idea to use this formula as the basis for DKP values of items is rather natural. It has a few drawbacks though:
- Using this formula simply yields the item level, so why not just use Blizzard's item level?
- Stat usefulness is a function of the class using the item
- Mid-range values on two useful stats is much superior to a high value in only one stat
- Should the SlotMods influence the DKP value or not?
In summary, the StatMods table could be used as a starting point for a DKP mod, but after that much thought has to be put into such a project.
During the original reverse-engineering of the individual "cost" of each stat, Hyzenthelei set out assuming that +1 to Heal had a cost of 100. He then compared items of similar item level and comparable stats and thus arrived at the first version of the StatMod table (which stood the test of time very well). Later, during a presentation by Blizzard at BlizzCon, a slide revealed that 1% Melee Crit = 14 points. This confirmed Hyzentheleis table (1% melee crit was indeed 14 times as expensive as one point of a basic stat), but at the same time gave a benchmark for the proper scale — rate basic stats with one point.
With WoW 2.0, the table was reworked, some properties (most notable Stamina) changed their price, and others were replaced. In particular many combat-related stats were changed to combat ratings. All existing items were updated to reflect this change. This simplified the table, because Combat Rating points are worth exactly one "item point", the same as base stats (exc. Stamina).
For some time, the armor values of items seemed to have gone down, but apparently in a recent patch they have gone back to normal and some items even went over their original values: returned to normal but have gained 10 armor. The reasons for these changes are not yet known.